Seven Principles for Good Teaching Practice and Penn State Resources for Implementation

This document contains the following sections:

The Seven Principles

How ANGEL Can Help

Resources on the Seven Principles

Penn State Resources that Support the Principles

The Seven Principles

This document lists and explains the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" (hereafter, the "Principles"), describes how Penn State’s Course Management System, ANGEL at http://cms.psu.edu/, helps instructors to implement the principles, and guides them to appropriate resources.

The Principles were published in 1987 by collaborators in the American Association for Higher Education. These Principles have been shown to help faculty members to all-inclusively engage students and provide enhanced and more meaningful learning experiences. The Principles are a result of a meta-analysis (statistical analysis and summary) of fifty years of research on teaching principles by Arthur Chickering and Zelda Gamson.

These Principles reinforce the Penn State Framework for General Education (http://www.psu.edu/ufs/geic/framewrk.html) and the 1998 Guidelines for General Education Reform (http://www.psu.edu/ufs/geic/appk.html). They guide not only undergraduate education but also all levels of education in all disciplines.

The Principles represent proven teaching practices, but often instructors and course developers do not apply them because of time and/or budget constraints. However, steps can be taken by any instructor to apply the principles and still manage his/her time and students.

The Principles are listed below with a brief explanation:

Principle

Explanation of the Principle

1. Encourage contact between students and faculty.

Contact inside and outside class; attention to student needs; commitment

2. Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students.

Team efforts; collaborative; social, not competitive or isolated

3. Encourage active learning.

Think, talk, or write about learning, reflect, relate, organize, apply, synthesize, evaluate, perform research, do lab or studio work, perform physically, participate in educational games and simulations, design, develop. Make what is learned part of themselves.

4. Give prompt feedback.

Faculty help students assess their knowledge and competence; provide opportunities to perform, receive suggestions, and reflect.

5. Emphasize time on task.

Effective time management by instructor and students; efficiency in using the time spent by students on learning tasks and by faculty on preparing and managing learning tasks

6. Communicate high expectations.

High but reasonable requirements; support for students in their efforts; maintain high expectations consistently for all

7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.

Use diverse materials and alternative ways to meet course requirements; provide multicultural assignments; allow for varied learning styles, abilities, and disabilities.

 

How ANGEL Can Help

ANGEL can help instructors apply the Principles. For example:

  1. Contact>: mail, chat, discussion forums, syllabus, calendar, lesson guidelines, teams, links to newer technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasting
  2. Reciprocity and cooperation: teams, team file space, study groups, drop boxes with peer review, discussion and mail with and without attachments
  3. Active learning: Lessons can include examples, cases, scenarios, problems, problem-solutions, periodic assessments, surveys, links to simulations, serious games, concept mapping, and newer technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasting. Chat, discussion forums, mail. Resources include links to library resources specific to the course.
  4. Feedback: instant assessment scoring, survey and poll summaries, grade report, manual feedback, WhoDunIt report, survey to determine misconceptions and evaluate teaching strategies, mail, chat, discussion forums, links to learning styles assessment
  5. Time on task: Calendar to pace learning activities, lesson items with customized deadlines, flexibility in when to access materials; WhoDunIt report, login checks, timed assessments, milestones, chat, discussion forums, and other prepackaged learning modules
  6. High expectations: Clear syllabus, automatic enforcement of due dates, chat, mail, discussion forums, milestones, WhoDunIt report, iStudy for Success! modules, good examples of past projects and extra resources in lessons
  7. Diverse talents and ways of learning: Audio, video, text, and other media, varied examples, alternative ways of achieving goals within the same lesson space (visual, hands-on, reading/writing) discussion forums, learning styles assessment

Resources on the Seven Principles

Writings on the Principles include:

Penn State Resources that Support the Principles

Principle 1: Encourage Contact Between Students and Faculty

 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Web Sites

 

Use syllabi to increase interaction among faculty and students as you communicate about goals, objectives, assignments, and other course logistics. 

About the Syllabus Tab

 

Tips for an Effective Syllabus
http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/syllabus

 

 

Interaction among students and faculty is not bound geographically.

Course Mail

Pedagogical Uses of Discussion Forums

Add a Chat Room 

E-mail Tips and Strategies for Faculty
http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/email
 

 

Principle 2: Develop Reciprocity and Cooperation among Students

 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

 

Support student collaboration by use of communication tools for delayed-time exchange or spontaneous real time conversation.

Course Mail

Pedagogical Uses of Discussion Forums

Add a Chat Room

Uses of Teams in ANGEL

Student Guidelines for Electronic Communication at Penn State
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/etips/stuguide.html

 

Enhance students’ preparedness and interactivity by using a variety of instructional strategies, such as structured ANGEL discussions, guest discussants, etc.

Pedagogical Uses of Discussion Forums 

Add a Course Member

Enroll a Non-Penn State Individual

Pages: General Information

Instructional Strategies Online

http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/index.html 

 

 

Improve student cooperation and higher-order skills as they work on real-life problems and have to compromise on conflicting perspectives.

Uses of Teams in ANGEL 

Building Blocks for Teams
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/teams/

 

iStudy for Success! (Active Listening, Brainstorming, Cooperative Learning, Problem Solving modules)
http://istudy.psu.edu/

 

Use communication tools such as mail, chat rooms, and discussion forums to enhance reciprocity and cooperation among students.

Course Mail

Pedagogical Uses of Discussion Forums

Add a Chat Room

Uses of Teams in ANGEL 

Crafting Questions for Online Discussions
http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/crafting_question

 

 



Principle 3: Encourage Active Learning 

 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

 

Expand opportunities that traditional technologies offer, thus encouraging active learning skills. 

Any item under the Lessons tab that has "General Information" in the title. 

Active Learning Links

http://www.teachtech.ilstu.edu/additional/tips/newActive.php 

 

Provide tools and resources for learning by doing. 

Uses of Teams in ANGEL 

Teaching with Databases
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/databases/

Using Cases in Teaching: ANGEL Tipshttp://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/cases/angel.html 

 

Connect Library services and electronic reserves to ANGEL courses so that students can employ different strategies to retrieve information.

Activating the Library Reserves Link

Library Guide Tool in ANGEL

iStudy for Success! (Source Evaluation and Search Strategies module)
http://istudy.psu.edu/

 

Principle 4: Give Prompt Feedback 

 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

 

Use immediate and diagnostic feedback for students’ self-reflection and self-evaluation, and also for you to record progress. 

Assessments: General Information

Surveys: General Information

Drop Boxes: General Information

Games: General Information 

Collecting Feedback That Improves Teaching and Learning

http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/MidsemesterFeedback 

 

Use surveys to gather information about the uses of technologies and methods used for learning in the classroom.

Flashlight Surveys of Technology Use in Courses

Surveys: General Information 

 

 

Principle 5: Emphasize Time on Task 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

Improve efficiency and effectiveness of time on task for faculty and students. 

All items within the Student Topics help category

About the Report Tab

Course Guide

Create a Group

For students:
iStudy for Success! (Time Management module)
http://istudy.psu.edu/
 

Use online feedback tools to improve efficiency.

Assessments: General Information

Review and Grade a Drop Box Submission

Enter Gradebook Grades by Assignment

Enter Gradebook Grades by User 

Writing Effective Questions to Promote Learning

http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/effective_questions

 

Principle 6: Communicate High Expectations

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

Explicitly and efficiently communicate skills every student needs to have in order to complete a successful career at Penn State.

About iStudy for Success!

About the Syllabus Tab 

iStudy for Success! Web site
http://istudy.psu.edu/

Cyberplagiarism: Detection and Prevention
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/plagiarism

 

Tips for an Effective Syllabus
http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/syllabus



Principle 7: Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning 

Good Practice

ANGEL Help Topics

Resources

Use links to "real world" resources and incorporate "authentic" learning activities into courses-a situational learning approach. 

Links: General Information

Course Resources Component

Communication Links

Foreign Languages and Math in ANGEL

Add a Course Member

Enroll a Non-Penn State Individual

Assistive Technology
http://clc.its.psu.edu/assistivetech/

Creating Accessible Web Sites
http://webstandards.psu.edu/accessibility/

Tips for Developing Non-English Web Sites
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/international/

Using Cases in Teaching: ANGEL Tips
http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/cases/angel.html

Friends of Penn State Account https://fps.psu.edu/

 

           

 

Additional Penn State Teaching Resources

Cyberplagiarism: Protection and Prevention: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/plagiarism

Turnitin Plagiarism Detection and Prevention Tool: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/turnitin/

Penn State e-Portfolio site: http://portfolio.psu.edu/

Scheduling a Technology Classroom: http://clc.its.psu.edu/Classrooms/Scheduling/

EndNote bibliographic software: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/ebsl/how/endnote.html

Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence: http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/

Penn State Learning: http://pennstatelearning.psu.edu/

University Libraries Course Reserves Service: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/reserves.html/

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