The HTML editor allows you to insert several varieties of mathematical equations with options such as auto-sizing parentheses, radicals, integrals, trigonometric functions, special symbols and more.
Technical note: The editor is a Java-based tool which generates MathML but converts the content into a GIF equation.
Insert an Equation
To insert an equation:
- Place your cursor where you wish to insert an equation.
Click the Insert Equation (Σ) button. The Insert Equation window will open.
Insert Equation button
- Depending on your system, you may see a Java coffee cup icon before the tool opens. You may also see a delay then a request to approve a Java applet. Click the appropriate option to approve the applet.
- If the window opens but remains blank, you may need to make sure your computer has the correct version of Java installed. Contact ANGEL support for additional information.
- To insert a symbol (e.g., ≥ for "greater than or equal to"), select the appropriate palette and click on the symbol. See the HTML Editor: Equation Editor Palette Reference help topic for a reference of symbols and structures.
To insert an equation, formula, or expression, select one of the palettes in the toolbar and select the best structure. The structure will be inserted with square place holders for variables or numbers.
Equation Editor window showing radical nth root structure with placeholders for the index value on the radical and the radicand beneath the radical symbol
Highlight each placeholder, then enter the appropriate text or number.
Radical nth root place holders set for 23 in the index and 1000 in the radical (i.e. 23√1000)
- Click the OK button to save the expression and return to the main HTML editor. In the HTML editor, you may see "mathml equation," but the expression will be visible after you save and exit the HTML editor.
Edit an Expression
To edit an expression, highlight the expression within the HTML editor (it will show square handles), then click the Insert Equation button again. The Insert Equation window will open.
Delete an Expression
To delete an expression, highlight the expression, then press the Delete or Backspace key.
A nested expression is one in which more than one expression structure is required. Nested expressions may include fractions with square roots or exponents, expressions with multiple sets of parentheses or other combinations of structures. See example image below.
Structure for a fraction with an nth root of a fraction in the numerator and the absolute value of a square root in the denominator, all enclosed in parentheses
Build Nested Expression Outside In
The most consistent results are generated by building a nested expression from the outermost layers in.
For instance in the image above, you could:
First insert the parentheses structure.
Note: As more items are added, the parentheses expand in height to accommodate the fractions and extra content.
- Highlight the placeholder within the parentheses, then insert a fraction.
- Highlight the numerator placeholder then insert an nth root structure.
- Highlight the radicand of the nth root and insert a fraction.
- For the denominator of the entire expression, you can insert absolute value brackets then the square root structure.
Build Nested Expression Inside Out
You can add outer structures (e.g., square brackets or square root) to simple expressions by highlighting the target area then selecting the appropriate structure.
Note: Output may vary depending on the tool. For instance, highlighting an area and selecting the fraction structure results in the original expression becoming the numerator, not the denominator.
Equation Editor Tools: Copy, Paste, Zoom
The Toolbox palette includes cut, copy, paste, undo, and zoom functions.
The Toolbox palette (wrench icon) is located at the right of the equation editor.
Toolbox palette options
Following is a description of each option:
Cut (scissors): Highlight text and click this tool to cut content to be pasted elsewhere.
Copy (two pages): Highlight text and click this tool to copy content to be pasted elsewhere.
Paste (clipboard): Move the cursor to new location and click this tool to paste content.
Undo (curved arrow): Click this tool to undo your last action.
Magnify (magnifying glass with plus sign): Click this tool to zoom in.
Shrink (magnifying glass with minus sign): Click this tool to zoom out.
Check Syntax Tool
The Check Syntax tool (check mark icon) at the far right is used to check for errors in your equation (e.g., improperly nested parentheses or brackets).
Check Syntax tool
Errors are typically highlighted in red boxes. See below for the color codes:
Red background: Parenthesis or bracket with no opposite counterpart
Red Asterisk: Empty placeholders or hidden content which can be removed
Red Text: Highlights operators (e.g., +, ≤, etc.)
Blue Text: Highlights operands (e.g., numbers, variables)
Green Text: Highlights functions (e.g., trigonometric functions)
Example expression (a-b)) with second right parenthesis highlighted in red because there is no second left parenthesis. The variables "a" and "b" are in blue and the minus operator is in red.
Example expression csc (x/y) with the cosecant function highlighted in green, variables "x" and "y" in blue and the division slash in red.